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Word Count: 1,234
Before the white settlers arrived in North America from Europe the Indian people were self-sufficient hunters and gatherers who lived off the land After Americans streamed into the continent the Indian were pushed farther and farther west the US governments treaties and assaults The Indian Reorganization act subjugated the Indian peoples by forcing them to live in remote reservations Poverty and desperation exacerbated by limited economic opportunity would permeate the reservations Ten years agounemployment among the nations tribes was 60 Every year the Federal Government spends hundreds of millions of dollars on welfare and other social programs for Native Americans 125 million was spent on the tribes in Minnesota Wisconsin Michigan and Iowa alone Prospects for economic revitalization seemed bleak In 1987 the economic future brightened after a Supreme Court case removed restrictions on Indian gambling This landmark case allowed untaxed Indian Gaming in states where any kind of gambling is legal Most states fall under this category because most states have state lotteries Since the decision Indian gaming revenue has risen from 212 million to 67 billion and 100000 new jobs have been secured for Indians The Indian Regulatory Act of 1988 mandated that the owners of the new casinos must sponsor social programs for the betterment of Indians such as health care schoolsscholarships and alcohol treatment Although politicians like John McCain R-AZ predicted 90-100 employment on Indian reservations unemployment remains high and salaries low Unemployment among tribes ranges from 40 to 50 while more than half of all casino jobs go to non-whites The majority of casino jobs pay between minimum wage and 9 and hour This is because the money that usually goes to salaries is instead going to fund social projects Out of 550 federally recognized tribes only 186 sponsor any kind of gambling Moreover 8 of the 186 tribes hold 40 of the revenues from gaming Most tribes live in sparsely populated
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