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Word Count: 1,126
The medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century and was an era of conflict Castle design changed throughout the Middle Ages in Europe for the protection and stronger and durable materials were introduced Castles in the middle ages were built for the protection against invaders They were also used for defense and a form of display of power and wealth Castles first appeared in Northern Europe in 1066AD when William the Conqueror won the Battle of Hastings The Norman invasion embarked the medieval period as it introduced the wooden Motte and Bailey castles Castles were situated on hilltops or high ground for an enhanced field of view This helped defenders by firing from a higher elevation and the attackers and their armies becoming tired from climbing up the hill Motte and Bailey castles were viewed as not permanent castles as the wood built on the earth was easily rotted quickly and they could easily be destroyed by fire it was for this reason that castle design changed as castles were weak Normans then introduced Stone castles The stone used for building medieval castles was generally mined in quarries Materials for building stone castles consisted of hard chalk flint limestone and sand stone The most important person in building a castle was a master mason they were partly an architect and engineer They would discuss building plans with the person who wanted the castle built Carpenters metal workers and other masons all worked under the master mason Smiths were needed to replace and sharpen various building tools The equipment used for building a castle was very basic Ladders scaffolding ramps and pulley systems were all used in the construction of castles Mortar was mixed and laid by a trowel Mortar was needed to hold stone together and was made by burning chalk or limestone in ovens Walls were filled with rubble and mortar and finished with quality stone called ashlar which was cut
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