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Lecture 17 The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England The political and moral advantages of this country as a seat of manufactures are not less remarkable than its physical advantages The arts are the daughters of peace and liberty In no country have these blessings been enjoyed in so high degree or for so long a continuance as in England Under the reign of of just laws personal liberty and property have been secure mercantile enterprise has been allowed to reap its reward capital has accumulated in safety the workman has gone forth to his work and to his labour until the evening and thus protected and favoured the manufacturing prosperity of the country has struck its roots deep and spread forth its branches to the ends of the earth Edward Baines The History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain 1835 In the eighteenth century a series of inventions transformed the manufacture of cotton in England and gave rise to a new mode or production -- the factory system During these years other branches of industry effected comparable advances and all these together mutually reinforcing one another made possible further gains on an ever-widening front The abundance and variety of these innovations almost defy compilation but they may be subsumed under three principles the substitution of machines -- rapid regular precise tireless -- for human skill and effort the substitution of inanimate for animate sources of power in particular the introduction of engines for converting heat into work thereby opening to man a new and almost unlimited supply of energy the use of new and far more abundant raw materials in particular the substitution of mineral for vegetable or animal substances These improvements constitute the Industrial Revolution David Landes The Unbound Prometheus 1969 The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was revolutionary because it changed -- revolutionized -- the productive capacity of England Europe and United
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