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Human development occurs across the lifespan of each individual it begins at conception and continues until death PBBaltes 1987 Kohli 1984 cited in Heckhausen Schultz 1995 After the development of the prenatal stages zygote fetus baby - during pregnancy the child is born At birth babies are born with primary control strategies behavioral strategies that help them to deal with stressful situations Primary control strategies are outwardly directed they attempt to change the world so that it fits the needs and desires of the individual Heckhausen Schultz 1995 In the later stages of childhood they develop secondary strategies cognitive strategies that also assist in there ability to cope with stress these are more inwardly based Heckhausen Schultz 1995 As the baby grows heshe will eventually and continually experience situations in life that will cause stress a child needs to learn how to cope with stress Each situation will cause varying degrees of stress for each child some situations will cause stress for some children but will not cause stress for others therefore the way a situation is approached by a child depends on how stressful the child perceives that situation Marriage Cummins 2004 To cope with stress children learn strategies that appear to be universal occur in all children but not universal within a situation they can choose to partially avoid completely avoid or approach stressful situations Altshuler Ruble 1989 The first coping strategies that children use are innate and are primary strategies Marriage Cummins 2004 cite Heckhausen Schulz Primary strategies are observable behaviors that are displayed for others to see The developmental stage of infancy and toddler hood 0 - 2 years the infant comes into contact with more and more stressful situations learning to sit crawl and walk cause the infant stress the child combines already learnt skills to achieve these goals there behavior becomes intentional Berk 2003 Crying is usually the main way that infants
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