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Racial Stratification There are several levels of racial stratification in post secondary education One level is the heirarchy in these institutions of differing prestige that has been augmented by the collapse of affirmative action Americas top universities and colleges have utilized race-sensitive admission policies to increase the number of black Hispanic Chicano Native American and other minority races for over three decades From the inception of affirmative action conservative politicians and writers attacked this policy and most recently the same rhetoric was used to dismantle affirmative action programs The University of California announced that race would not be taken into consideration fin admissions policies in 1995 where a 14-10 vote was cast by the regents of the university In 1996 California voters approved Proposition 209 which prohibited any state institution can discriminate against or grand prefrential treatment to any individual group on the basis of race sex color ethncity or national origin in the operation of public employment public education or public contracting The wording of the entire text was deceptive and was quite different from the referendum in Texas that was voted against because in Texas the wording stated affirmative action rather than preferential treatment California has been known in the past to be a progressively good state to live in for minorities and Texas had been the bad state for minorities to live in though with the past California Governor Wilson that quickly was reversed By the following year at the Boalt Hall law school at Berkley the top law school in California enrolled only 1 black student instead of the 24 black students enrolled for almost three decades In Texas the Texas Law school had previously enrolled 31 black students only 4 black students were enrolled in 1997 Critics of affirmative action have argued that the affirmative action program hurt race relations within these higher
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