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RISE AND GROWTH OF NATIONAL STATES FORMATION AND GROWTH OF PRUSSIA EARLY HISTORY OF PRUSSIA The German Ducy of Brandenberg in north central Europe on the Baltic Sea was a part of the Holy Roman Empire This was ruled by the Hohenzollern family a line of rulers called Electors Since the 15th Century they had gradually extended their borders FREDERICK WILLIAM - 1640-1688-THE GREAT ELECTOR Frederick made Prussia first among the German states He centralized the government and raised enough money to build up a strong army His son Frederick I 1701-13 took the title of King of Prussia Frederick William II 1713-40 annexed Swedish Pomerania FREDERICK II THE GREAT - 1740-1786-GREATEST PRUSSION KING As an enlightened despot Frederick the Great encouraged education and religious toleration he promoted industry and built canals roads and bridges In foreign affairs he seized the rich province of Silesia from Austria and successfully fought off attempts to regain it in the Seven Years War 1756-63 This war involved the major nations of Europe with England on the side of Prussia and France helping Austria The war was fought in America too but there it was known as the French and Indian War In 1772 Frederick took part in the first of three partitions of Poland and gained the western part of that country By the time he died Frederick had made Prussia the most miltaristic and centralized government in all of Europe He had also doubled its area and army and made it a serious rival to Austria in the management of German affairs - long a monopoly of the Hapsburgs NATIONALISM AS A FACTOR IN WORLD HISTORY THE LANGUAGE OF NATIONALISM Many 19th-Century authors insisted that just as a person has an inalienable cannot be surrendered or transferred right to freedom so did each nationality have a natural right to a
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