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TYPES OF MOTIVATION 1INTRINSIC - your own reasons to study 2EXTRINSIC - sources of external motivation - desire of students to please an authority their wish to succeed in an external exam or peer-group influences these CANNOT be influenced by the teacher - success and its rewards failure and its penalties authoritative demands tests competition these ARE affected by the teacher action 3INTEGRATIVE - immigration 4INSTRUMENTAL - for a job for career advancement 5GLOBAL - overall 6SITUATIONAL - in different situations 7TASK - when given a specific task CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATED LEARNERS 1POSITIVE TASK ORIENTATION - the learner is willing to tackle tasks and challenges and has confidence in hisher success 2EGO-INVOLVEMENT - the learner finds it important to succeed in learning in order to maintain and promote hisher own positive self-image 3NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT - the learner has a need to achieve to overcome difficulties and succeed in what heshe sets to do 4HIGH ASPIRATIONS - the learner is ambitious goes for demanding challenges high proficiency top grades 5GOAL ORIENTATION - the learner is very aware of the goals of learning or of specific learning activities and directs hisher efforts towards achieving them 6PERSEVERANCE - the learner constantly invests a high level of effort in learning and is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack of progress 7TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY - the learner is not disturbed or frustrated by situations involving a temporary lack of understanding or confusion heshe can live with these patiently in the confidence that understanding will come later WAYS OF AROUSING INTEREST IN TASKS CLEAR GOALS Learners should be aware of the objectives of the task - both language-learning and content VARIED TOPICS AND TASKS Topics and tasks should be selected carefully to be as interesting as possible VISUALS It is important for learners to have something to look at that is eye-catching and relevant to the task in hand
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