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Word Count: 625
Both novels portrayed their colonial society structures to be Eurocentric with social class stratification based on caste systems race gender language and religion Besides the European superiority complex Jose Rizal offered an intriguing insight into Philippines colonial society structure His characters in Noli me Tagere The Gathering portrayed each distinct social class the clergy military civilian and government that made up the Philippines society Claims about Philippines stratified society structure was supported by research by Lange 2006 Post-Spanish colonialism often left behind highly stratied societies Toer wrote with stronger emphasis on ethno-racial stratification in Indonesias colonial society As shown in Minkes inner-thoughts about how he should treat Nyai Ontosoros handshake refuse it as shaking hands with woman was not of Native customs or accept it gracefully as a European This insinuated that Indonesias colonial society was structured along lines of caste ethnicity and gender Distinction between Social Groups and DynamicsThere were two distinctive language used in Philippines described in Noli me Tangere Spanish and Tagalog The Spanish colonists and Filipinos had co-existed on Philippines for more than three hundred years Yet their relationship was still so dysfunctional that a language divide existed According to Augenbraum 2006 the Spanish friars administrators and colonists will not or cannot speak their neighbors language and most Filipinos do not learn Spanish Ostensibly relationship between the clergy and Philippines military were tense after the formers abuse described by Rizal this priest returned to the town and after mistreating the poor coadjutor had the body of a very distinguished person exhumed The clergys relationship with Filipinos also soured as seen as Father Damaso ended up with a plate in which a naked chicken neck Toer described the societys elites to be the league of royalty wealthy and powerful people eg Bupati or Patih Followed by the middle-class of Indos with social mobility and substantial wealth to choose eg European education or traditional education The caste of undesirables Natives concubines illegitimate children
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