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The article that I choose was one that dealt with a study of immediacy credibility and learning between students and teachers in the United States and the similarities and differences between those in Kenya Immediacy which originally defined by Mehrabian1971 refers to behaviors of approach and avoidance related to ones sense of likingJohnson Miller 2002 The way immediacy is studied is usually through student reports of perceived occurrence of specified verbal and nonverbal behaviors Johnson Miller How teachers can display verbal immediacy is by referring to a student by name using humor in the classroom listening to students opinions The teacher can display nonverbal communication through behaviors such as making eye contact directly with students using positive facial expressions maintaining a relaxed body position with students and employing variety in vocal inflections Johnson Miller The authors made some hypothesis in the beginning of the study Hypothesis one was that consistent positive relationships exist between learning and therefore negative relationships exist between learning loss and professorlecturer verbal immediacy nonverbal immediacy and credibility across US and Kenyan university students The second hypothesis was that US and Kenyan students perceived consistent positive relationships between professorlecturer immediacy and professorlecturer credibility Johnson Miller 2002 In American culture increased teacher immediacy has been associated with higher perceived cognitive learning Johnson Miller 2002 Most African cultures are considered to be highly immediate however these cultures tend to be high in power distance Johnson Miller This means that members of these societies consider the unequal distribution of power and status to be a normal part of life Johnson Miller Data were gathered from samples of students at two relatively small universities one in the United States and the other in Kenya There were 141 students in the US sample and 193 in the Kenyan sample In both samples students were drawn from introductory public speaking and interpersonal communication courses Johnson Miller 2002 Verbal
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