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The emergence psychometric soundness and continued development of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory SASSI Miller 1985 1994 1997 is reviewed from its original version through it current third revision The SASSI is a screening tool designed to detect chemical dependency in individuals regardless of attempts to conceal minimize or deny substance use involvement The SASSIs nine subscales are based on clusters of items that were empirically derived and validated through an extensive period of testing and refinement with different groups of individuals clinically diagnosed as chemically dependent as well as normative groups of nonaddicts Shortcomings detected through various research projects are addressed on an ongoing basis with the result of producing an increasingly accurate and reliable instrument with each revision The Evolution of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory Development and Revisions of a Criterion Referenced Instrument Designed to Detect Substance AbuseWithout Regard to Defensiveness Issues That substance abuse is one of the most pressing problems facing the world today is not news This particular social problem reaches across all lines of socioeconomic status race age sex and education level According to figures from the US Department of Health and Human Services drug abuse kills 14000 Americans each year and places a nearly 70 billion dollar burden on the taxpayers in unnecessary health care costs additional law enforcement auto accidents crime lost productivity incarceration and other criminal justice system costs National Clearinghouse on Alcohol Drug Information 1997 According to a study prepared for the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 1992 the estimated total economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse for 1992 was 2457 billion an increase in excess of 50 over 1985 cost estimates This increase was attributed to four primary contributors 1 the epidemic of heavy cocaine use 2 the HIV epidemic 3 an eightfold increase in state and federal incarcerations for drug offenses and 4 a threefold increase
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