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In evaluating the successes and failures of United States political policies during the Cold War 1945-1990 it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the impact this period had on American history The policies designed to ensure the containment of communism dramatically effected U S diplomacy the rights of American citizens the United States economy NASA and the space program as well as played a significant role in Americas use of force and espionage to manipulate the governments of weaker nations Only through examination of the influence of the Cold War in these areas can there be a valid exploration of whether the policy of containment led to any true victories over communism When looking back on United States diplomacy during the Cold War it is apparent that the advancements in foreign policy achieved were often marred by embarrassing political incidents President Harry Truman played a significant role in the creation of a Cold War between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Immediately following the end of World War II President Truman set a precedent for American foreign policy by creating the Truman Doctrine In a 1947 speech at Baylor University the leader of the United States proclaimed that the containment of communism was necessary to ensure peace and the freedom of all Americans p837 Through the creation of the Truman Doctrine the United States had declared its right to intervene to save other nations from communist subversion p838 This fundamental stance against communist subversion would later lead to foreign policy failures and military humiliation in Korea Vietnam the Middle East and Latin America The European Recovery Program gave the Truman administration one major victory over communism The Marshall Plan as it is more commonly identified was designed to turn back both socialist and communist bids for power in northern and western Europe p838 by financial supporting the governments and economies of these nations In the end this foreign policy
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