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Word Count: 359
Theory of Operation One common requirement in digital circuits is counting both forward and backward Digital clocks and watches are everywhere timers are found in a range of appliances from microwave ovens to VCRs This circuit is used as a counter The two 7-segment displays 1 least significant digit and 1 most significant digit count up LSD 110 sec MSD 1100 sec The least significant digits output carry out feeds into the most significant digit input 1555 monostable multivibrator creates 320Hz Monostable multivibrator often called a one shot multivibrator is a pulse generating circuit in which the duration of this pulse is determined by the RC network connected externally to the 555 timer In a stable or standby state the output of the circuit is approximately zero or a logic-low level When external trigger pulse is applied output is forced to go high VCC The time for which output remains high is determined by the external RC network connected to the timer At the end of the timing interval the output automatically reverts back to its logic-low stable state The output stays low until trigger pulse is again applied Then the cycle repeats The monostable circuit has only one stable state output low hence the name monostable 27474 D flip-flop divides the 320Hz by 2 divide by two The D flip-flop tracks the input making transitions with match those of the input D The D stands for data this flip-flop stores the value that is on the data line It can be thought of as a basic memory cell 3The clocks to all circuits run off the Q output of the 555 4A 74163 SN74163 Synchronous Programmable Hex Counter divides the 160Hz to 16Hz by using a divide by ratio of 13 and a compliment input of 3 5Finally a 74160 decimal counter divides the 10Hz by 10 to obtain our final 1Hz 6Our RC out from pin 15 on our 74160 1Hz
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