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IB Chemistry - Intermolecular Bonding EssayWrite an essay on intermolecular bonding Explain how each type of bond arises and theevidence for the existence of each Comment on their strengths in relation to the types ofatoms involved the covalent bond and relative to each other Use the concepts ofdifferent types and strengths of intermolecular bonds to explain the followingThere exists four types of intermolecular bonding they include ionic covalent Van derwaals and hydrogen bonding In order to describe the existence of such bonding you mustalso understand the concepts of polarity polar and non-polar and electronegativityIonic bonds are created by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another Inthis process of electron transfer each atom becomes a ion that is isoelectronic with thenearest noble gas the substance is held together by electrostatic forces between theions The tendency for these ions to be formed by elements is corespondent to the octetrule when atoms react they tend to do so in such a way that they attain an outer shellcontaining eight electrons The factors that effect the formation of ions are ionizationenergy electron affinity lattice energyFigure 1The transfer of electrons involved in the formation of a sodium chloride and b calciumfluoride Each atom forms an ion with an outer shell containing eight electronsFor many elements compounds cannot be formed by the production of ions since the energyreleased in the formation of the lattice of ions would be insufficient to overcome theenergy required to form the ions would be insufficient to overcome the energy required toform the ions in the first place In order for the atoms to achieve a noble gasconfiguration they must use another method of bonding by the process of electron sharingFrom figure 2 you can see that the example of two hydrogen atoms combing As the atomsget closer together each electron experiences an attraction towards the two nuclei andthe electron density shifts so that the most probable place to find the two electrons isbetween
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