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# The Use of Organized Mathematics in the Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian Mathematics The use of organized mathematics in Egypt has been dated back to the third millennium BC Egyptian mathematics was dominated by arithmetic with an emphasis on measurement and calculation in geometry With their vast knowledge of geometry they were able to correctly calculate the areas of triangles rectangles and trapezoids and the volumes of figures such as bricks cylinders and pyramids They were also able to build the Great Pyramid with extreme accuracy Early surveyors found that the maximum error in fixing the length of the sides was only 063 of an inch or less than 114000 of the total length They also found that the error of the angles at the corners to be only 12 or about 127000 of a right angle Smith 43 Three theories from mathematics were found to have been used in building the Great Pyramid The first theory states that four equilateral triangles were placed together to build the pyramidal surface The second theory states that the ratio of one of the sides to half of the height is the approximate value of P or that the ratio of the perimeter to the height is 2P It has been discovered that early pyramid builders may have conceived the idea that P equaled about 314 The third theory states that the angle of elevation of the passage leading to the principal chamber determines the latitude of the pyramid about 30o N or that the passage itself points to what was then known as the pole star Smith 44 Ancient Egyptian mathematics was based on two very elementary concepts The first concept was that the Egyptians had a thorough knowledge of the twice-times table The second concept was that they had the ability to find two-thirds of any number Gillings 3 This number could be either integral or fractional The Egyptians used the fraction 23 used with sums of unit fractions 1n to express all other

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