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John R Reeve Intl Seminar Paper 3 The first article entitle The Summoning by Fouad Ajami begins with a quote from Marlowe that emphasizes that all civilization has been affected by western ideas and thought Immediately he attacks Huntingtons essay The Clash of Civilizations Not only does he demolish the ideas set forth by Huntington Ajami sets forth his own ideas on the current instability among nations Ajami does not believe that civilizations will clash over race and does not acknowledge the de-westernization of societies He believes that Huntington places far too much emphasis on tradition We have been hearing from traditionalists but we should not exaggerate their power for traditions are often more insistent and loud when they rupture when people no longer really believe and when age-old customs lose their ability to keep men and women at home His ideas on tradition clearly undercut Huntingtons ideas on the re-emergence of tribalism He says instead of states splintering because of secular groups they will stay coherent out of necessity and fear of chaos Ajami sums up his essay with an age-old philosophy of self-help and self-interest I see this article as a welcomed alternative to the fairly depressing world that Huntington has prescribed for us In The End of Progressivism Eisuke Sakakibara again looks over the history of conflict and does not believe that conflict comes from sheer ethnicity alone Instead he points to economic and environmental problems He also denies the premise made by Fukuyama He argues that we have not entered the end of history but we are still evolving There are still non-capitalist approaches to government and economy He points to the example of Chinas social market economy This article seems mainly to deal with the economic side of government and conflict He points to the fact that civilizations rise and fall and do clash with one another but more importantly civilizations have coexisted throughout most of history and
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