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Yazan FahmawiT3 IBS ChemistryMs RedmanHistorical Development ofAtomic StructureThe idea behind the atom goes back to the Ancient Greek society wherescientistsbelieved that all matter was made of smaller more fundamental particles called elementsThey called these particles atoms meaning not divisible Then came thechemists andphysicists of the 16th and 17th centuries who discovered various formulae of various saltsand water hence discovering the idea of a moleculeThen in 1766 was born a man named John Dalton born in England He is known as the fatherof atomic theory because he is the one who made it quantitative meaning he discoveredmany masses of various elements and in relation discovered the different proportionswhich molecules are formed in ie for every water molecule one atom of oxygen and twomolecules of hydrogen are needed He also discovered the noble or inert gases and theirfailure to react with other substances In 1869 a Russian chemist best known for hisdevelopment of the periodic law of the properties of the chemical elements which statesthat elements show a regular pattern periodicity when they are arrangedaccording totheir atomic masses published his first attempt to classify the known elements His namewas Mendeleyev and he was a renowned teacher Because no good textbook in chemistry wasavailable at the time he wrote the two-volume Principles of Chemistry 1868-1870 whichlater became a classic During the writing of this book Mendeleyev tried to classify theelements according to their chemical properties In 1871 he published an improved versionof the periodic table in which he left gaps for elements that were not yet known Hischart and theories gained acceptance by the scientific world when three elements hepredictedgallium germanium and scandiumwere subsequentlydiscovered In 1856 anotherimportant figure in atomic theory was born Sir Joseph John Thomson In 1906 afterteaching at the University of Cambridge and Trinity University in England he won theNobel Prize in physics for his work on the conduction of electricity through gases Hediscovered what an electron is using cathode rays An electron is the
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