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With an aging population increase and enhancement of advanced medical and surgical interventions including redesigned modern hospitals attention and concern has focused on complications of nosocomial infections Weinstein 1998 Nosocomial infections also referred to as hospital-acquired infections is defined as localized or systemic conditions that result from adverse reactions to the presence of an infectious agents or its toxins and that were not present or incubating at the time of admission to the hospital Garner et al 1996 cited by Duffy 2002 p359 This major hazard entailed with hospitalization therefore affects one out of nine patients with estimated odds of death being doubled Harrisons Online Furthermore increased multi-resistant organisms which are bacteria resistant to numerous antibiotics is another significant concern for health professionals Adams Harvey 1995 Accordingly this essay will discuss the types of susceptible patients to infections and the most common micro-organisms associated with nosocomial infections Including how implications of effective handwashing wearing of protective attire and appropriate disposal of wastes linen and sharps are strategies and methods used by nursing staff in preventing controlling and reducing nosocomial infections Plus the importance of screening patients and how this minimises cross infection This essay will lastly discuss factors contributing to an infection outbreak and the role and impact that health professionals have in these procedures Different groups of patients are at higher risk of developing a nosocomial infection undeniably certain factors contribute to susceptibility Although immunocompetent hosts are susceptible in particular the elderly and immunocompromised patients are vulnerable to nosocomial infections due to reduced or impaired host defenses in resisting infection Duffy 2002 Additionally use of diagnostic and invasive procedures such as catheters respiratory assistance devices burns surgery monitoring devices intravenous catheters and severity of illness Hospital acquired infectionnosocomial infection Online where susceptibility to infections of patients in hospital longer than 48hrs significantly increases Harrisons Online Therefore the intensive care burns neonatal dialysis and oncology units are wards in hospitals where obtaining
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