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Word Count: 832
1 Socrates Socratic method of teaching 1 to convince the other of his ignorance 2 to make a true search for the answer But sophists believed that 1 virtue could be taught 2 there is no common knowledge Socrates ethical principle 1 virtue is knowledge wisdom Virtue - excellence good at doing smth Plato expands virtue is knowledge 1 with psychology parts of the soul separate from each other a reason - desire for knowledge head b spirited part emotions love envy shame heart c appetites - desire for food drink sex stomach He bases this principle on the law of non-contradiction P any statement not p cant both be true If chalk is white it cant be black 2 talks about classes of society a rulers dont have family b warriors auxiliaries - carry out the policies and defend the society c craftsmen For P ideal person is mostly uses reason and controls his appetites but is not taken by appetites Justice - harmony in the unity in the soul and society Justice is based on reason supported by emotions and appetites Virtues wisdom courage temperance and justice Rulers need to know where the good is - Divided Line Knowledge 1 infallible always true 2 based upon reality 3 knowledge on one thing relies on things that are unique and unchanging Opinion 1 may be true or false because it is 2 based on appearances - may change 3 rely on things that are many and changing Good is like a sun 1 allows sight 2 creator sustainer of life in visible world 3 purpose to life Soul exists in particular part of our body 2 Aristotle A believes that happiness is the end and most people say that happiness includes pleasure that may be good or bad So if pleasures are bad then they can not be our goal Aristotle questions bad pleasures Happiness eudaimonia- condition of flourishing being
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