You’ve written at least a gazillion argumentative essays in your academic career, right? And I’m sure that in just about all of them you’ve had to include the counterargument. But have you also included a rebuttal?
Right now, some of you might be thinking, “Wait….What? You mean I have to include even more stuff in my paper?” Don’t freak out just yet.
So what is a rebuttal? In a nutshell, the rebuttal is just more of you arguing your point.
Think of it this way. If you’re one of those people who struggles to meet word count requirements, including the rebuttal not only strengthens your argument but also makes your paper longer!
Are you now thinking, “What is this? A legitimate way to add content, rather than useless fluff to my paper? Bring it on!”
I was hoping you’d say that. So let’s get to it.
Not only will I give you an in-depth answer to the question that brought you here—what is a rebuttal?— but I’ll also show you how to write an effective rebuttal for your argument essay.
What Is a Rebuttal? (And How Does It Fit In Your Overall Argument?)
Understanding the rebuttal starts with knowing how it fits into your overall argument. That means we need to look at not just what a rebuttal is, but also the argument and counterargument that must come before it.
In need of a little more assistance in developing an argument? Check out these posts:
- How to Write a Winning Argument Essay
- The Argument Essay: Everything You Need to Know
- 10 Logical Fallacies That Will Kill Your Argument
The counterargument is basically the opposing view. Think of all those people who disagree with what you have to say: the counterargument is what they would say about your topic.
The counterargument is an important component. It strengthens your argument by illustrating not only that you have done your research but also that you’ve carefully considered the opposing view.
Need help unpacking all that? Read What Is A Counterargument in an Argumentative Essay.
And finally, that moment you’ve been waiting for. What is a rebuttal? The rebuttal directly addresses the opposing view and states why your claims are valid. Essentially, in a rebuttal, you acknowledge the opposition but continue to argue why you’re still right.
Here’s a quick example of how you might use a rebuttal in your daily conversations:
Let’s say you and a friend are discussing the best local restaurants for a first date.
Your argument is that an Italian place across town is the best because its food is delicious, and the atmosphere is romantic.
Your friend expresses a counterargument by stating that the restaurant isn’t at all romantic. She says the restaurant is dark, that the atmosphere is dull, boring, and far too quiet, and that it’s a place only old people go.
You then offer a rebuttal by stating that a dark and quiet atmosphere doesn’t mean that it’s dull or boring or only for old people. A quiet, dimly lit dining area is the perfect romantic setting in which to get to know your date.
See how that works? You offer your argument. Your friend presents a counterargument. You present the rebuttal by acknowledging your friend’s point, but you still argue why you’re right.
Okay, now that you have the gist and could passably give an answer when someone asks, “What is a rebuttal?” let’s focus on how you can write an effective rebuttal in your argumentative essay.
2 Strategies to Use When Writing an Effective Rebuttal
Writing an effective rebuttal means more than saying, “I’m right, and you’re wrong.” Essentially, that is the gist of what you’re saying, but remember, you’re writing an academic essay.
[Tweet “Writing an effective rebuttal means more than saying, “I’m right, and you’re wrong.”]
Here are two strategies for tackling your rebuttal.
Rebuttal strategy #1: Point out the errors in the counterargument
By acknowledging the counterargument but then pointing out its errors or flaws, you’re further strengthening your own argument.
This strategy allows you to illustrate that you’ve examined the issues and understand why some people may have a different perspective. But by including a strong rebuttal, you can demonstrate that your arguments are credible and stronger than the opposition’s.
Take a look at this example about minimum wage. (I’ve written the rebuttal in red to help distinguish the rebuttal from the counterargument.)
Opponents of raising the state’s minimum wage argue that an increase in wages will result in employers either losing money or being forced to cut workers’ hours in order to save costs. In reality, however, raising the state’s minimum wage will mean that workers will have additional discretionary income and will spend more money at local businesses. With the increase in revenue, businesses will not need to cut employees’ hours and will actually make money rather than lose money.
In this example, the writer acknowledges the counterargument (employers may lose money or cut hours) but then points out why the argument is flawed (workers will have additional money, and businesses will actually see an increase in profits).
Again, this strengthens your argument by illustrating why your claim is stronger than the opposition’s.
Want to see what an argument, counterargument, and rebuttal look like in action? Read A Report on the Need for the Increase of Minimum Wage.
Rebuttal strategy #2: Agree with the counterargument but provide additional information to weaken it
In some instances, it’s necessary to partially agree with the opposing view. After all, there may be some validity to the counteragument.
In these instances, you will agree with the counterargument but then provide further information that strengthens your argument while weakening the opposition’s.
Take a look at this example about technology addiction. (Once again, I’ve written the rebuttal in red to help distinguish the rebuttal from the counterargument.)
Some parents argue that teens should not be allowed to use social media because they can easily become addicted; however, simply keeping teens away from social media is not the answer. Granted, there is always a risk of addiction when using technology, but with proper education, teens can be taught how to use social media (and other technology) responsibly.
In this example, the writer first acknowledges that allowing teens to use social media means that there’s a risk of addiction.
But then the writer strengthens the argument by including additional evidence to weaken the claim that keeping teens away from social media is the best way to avoid addiction.
The Importance of Transitions
So you’ve written the argument, counterargument, and rebuttal and think you’re ready to go, right? Hold up! Not so fast. You need to first make sure that you’ve used transitions to link everything together.
Transitions are like bridges. They connect one idea to the next. Without them, you just have a bunch of ideas floating around with nothing connecting them and nothing to help readers make sense of your arguments.
Without these, readers can become confused and not know where the counterargument begins or ends, or where your rebuttal begins.
Take a look at the following example.
Argument: Wind farms benefit communities.
Ineffective counterargument and rebuttal:
Wind farms create too much noise pollution, but they are placed far enough away from homes and are actually quite quiet.
The first part of the sentence, which is supposed to be the counteragument in this example, isn’t effective because it simply appears to contradict the main argument (that wind farms benefit communities). There’s no indication that this is actually a counterargument.
The rebuttal is ineffective because it seems to contradict the counterargument. There’s no indication that the second part of the sentence is transitioning to the rebuttal.
In other words, this counterargument and rebuttal are a hot mess.
Effective counterargument and rebuttal:
Though opponents claim wind farms create too much noise pollution, their assumptions are inaccurate. Although wind turbines do emit some sounds, the sounds are minimal, and because the wind turbines are generally placed away from housing, residents rarely hear any noise generated by the turbines.
Notice the words in red in the example above. These transition words help readers identify both the counterargument and the transition to the rebuttal. Use of proper phrasing makes the argument much clearer and more effective.
Interested in seeing if you can spot transitions between arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals? Take a look at a few example argumentative essays to see how other writers transition between sections.
Putting the Final Pieces Together
Now that you can confidently answer, “What is a rebuttal?” (and write an effective one), remember that the counterargument and rebuttal often appear at the end of your paper.
This, of course, means that if you’ve made it this far, one of the final steps is to write a killer conclusion. Don’t forget, though, that essay writing doesn’t end with the basic drafting of your essay.
If you want to be extra-sure that your arguments (and counterarguments and rebuttals) all flow seamlessly and make sense, let a Kibin editor help you put it all together.